1. Introduction to Kotlin Programming

This tutorial is an introduction to Kotlin, which is a modern programming language. Also, Kotlin is compatible with Java and is used for Android development. Due to its adaptability, features, and usefulness, Google also suggests building Android apps using Kotlin. In this tutorial, we will briefly discuss what Kotlin is, its differences from Java programming, and some historical features of this language.

1.1. What is Kotlin?

Kotlin is a general-purpose programming language used mainly to build Android applications. Further, Kotlin is statically typed a multiplatform language, and runs on a JVM(Java Virtual Machine). The popularity of Kotlin increased as it is compatible with Java i.e. we can use Java within Kotlin code. Moreover, the function and object-oriented paradigm of Kotlin language make it more popular among developers.

Let's dig deep into this Kotlin tutorial to learn more about this language, its differences from Java, its versions, and some history.

Tutorial Contents:

  1. Introduction To Kotlin Programming
  2. Difference From Java
  3. Kotlin History
  4. Versions of Kotlin

2. Differences Between Kotlin and Java

In the dynamic world of programming languages, the debate between Kotlin and Java is one that developers often find themselves entangled in. Both languages have their strengths and use cases, and understanding the differences is key to making an informed choice. In this exploration, we'll delve into the distinctions between Kotlin and Java, shedding light on their respective features and advantages.

The below comparison would also clarify the popularity of Kotlin over Java among developers. Let us dig further to find out the differences between Kotlin and Java languages.

Difference Kotlin Java
Conciseness Kotlin has concise boilerplate code. The Java Code is lengthy.
Null Safety The type system differentiates between nullable and non-nullable types reducing developers' headache. Programmers need to manually check for null values.
Checked Exceptions Kotlin does not have checked exceptions. Java incorporates the checked exceptions facility, which ensures that developers explicitly handle potential exceptional conditions, promoting robust error management.
Ternary Operator This is replaced with an if statement. Java has this ternary operator a ? b : c.
Interoperability Seamless interoperability with Java using existing libraries inside Kotlin projects. Incorporating Kotlin inside Java needs some adjustments due to the robust interoperability of Java.
Functional Programming Kotlin embraces functional programming paradigms. A little support for functional programming is recent versions of Java.
Coroutines for Asynchronous Programming Kotlin introduces coroutines, a powerful feature for handling asynchronous programming, making the code more readable and maintainable. Java lacks this facility of coroutines.
Adoption in Android Development Kotlin gained popularity among Android development thus gaining official Google support. Java has a long Android development history but the popularity of Kotlin reduced its use in Android development.
Compilation and Execution Kotlin code is compiled into Java bytecode, allowing it to run on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). This compatibility ensures that Kotlin applications can leverage the vast ecosystem of Java libraries. Java is also compiled to bytecode, making it platform-independent. Java applications can run on any device with a Java Virtual Machine(JVM).

3. History of Kotlin

This high-level programming language was developed by JetBrains in 2011. After a year of development, JetBrains disclosed the project Kotlin in 2011. The project was open-sourced in 2012 under Apache 2 License. The project team named this language after an island Kotlin, near St. Petersburg just like Java.

2.1. Kotlin History Perks

The below table summarizes all perks related to the history of the Kotlin language.

Designed By JetBrains
Developed By JetBrains
Release Date July 22, 2011
Stable Release 1.9.10, August 23, 2023
Typing Discipline Inferred, Static, Strong
Paradigm object-oriented, functional, imperative, block-structured, declarative, generic, reflective, concurrent
Platform Android, JVM, JavaScript, macOS, iOS, tvOS, watchOS, Linux, Windows, WebAssembly, LLVM
Licence Apache License 2.0
File Extensions .kt, .kts, .kexe, .klib
Website kotlinlang.org
Influenced By C#, Eiffel, Gosu, Groovy, Java, JavaScript, ML, Python, Scala
Influenced V(Vlang)

4. Versions of Kotlin Language

JetBrains released various versions of Kotlin language from 2011 till date. The below timeline chronologically lists all versions of Kotlin in a.

Kotlin 1.9

July 2023

Kotlin 1.8

December 2022

Kotlin 1.7

June 2022

Kotlin 1.6

November 2021

Kotlin 1.5

May 2021

Kotlin 1.4

August 2020

Kotlin 1.3

October 29, 2018

Kotlin 1.2

November 28, 2017

Kotlin 1.0

Feburary 15, 2016

First Comit

November 8, 2010

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